essay about an influential person in your life

Stuart Hall provides an analysis of cultural identities and what they stand for, their workings and underlying complexities and practices. Hall argues that cultural.

In addition, they questioned the placement of large numbers of nuclear waste dumps on Native-American reservations. Meanwhile, activists, scholars, and policymakers began investigating the link between race and exposure to environmental hazards.


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Two influential studies exploring this relationship—one by the U. The study by the UCC was particularly important because it made an explicit connection between race and the increased likelihood of being exposed to hazardous wastes. The studies also made the issue of race and the environment more salient in communities of color. In Sidney Howe, Director of the Human Environment Center, argued that the poor were exposed to more pollution than others, and that those creating the most pollution live in the least polluted places. He used the term environmental justice to describe the corrective measures needed to address this disparity.

The term environmental racism came into popular use at a conference held at the University Michigan's School of Natural Resources in The conference, which focused on race and environmental hazards, brought together scholars and policymakers to discuss the relationship between racism and the environment. In addition, the term environmental equity movement was used in the late s to describe the growing movement to address racial, gender, and class environmental inequalities. However, by the early s the term justice replaced equity because environmental justice activists felt justice was a more inclusive term that incorporated the concepts of equality and impartiality.

The movement focuses on two kinds of justice: 1 distributive justice, who bears what costs and benefits, and 2 corrective justice, concerned with the way individuals are treated during a social transaction.


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  • DEFINING ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE AND ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM: Urban Geography: Vol 22, No 1.
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  • The environmental justice movement is concerned with distributive justice especially as it relates to identifying past racial injustices and advantages as well as the quest for future remedies. The movement is also concerned with corrective justice as it relates to corporate-worker—community relations and government—local community interactions.

    Aguirre, Adalberto Jr. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Bryant, Bunyan, and Mohai, Paul. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Bullard, Robert. Healey, Joseph F. Howe, Sidney. Nozick, R. Anarchy, State and Utopia. New York: Basic Books. Omi, Michael, and Winant, Howard.

    The Environmental Justice Movement

    Racial Formation in the United States: From the s to the s. New York: Routledge. Rawls, J. A Theory of Justice. What source s of pollution exist? For example, does a major highway cut through your town, exposing residents to a lot of noise and fumes? Is there a landfill or a hazardous waste disposal area? Is there a power plant that is noisy and puts smoke into the air?

    Who lives in the areas where these pollutants are concentrated? Is there a pattern similar to what you saw on the map of Connecticut? Are there any organizations or individuals in your area talking about the situation being unjust? Find out about efforts in your area to secure environmental justice.

    If there is a local organization, invite a member to speak to your class. If not, see if you can start a group at your school to learn more about environmental justice.

    Do this using one of the following techniques, or use one of your own. This lesson helps students understand how pollution disproportionately affects people who are poor and members of racial and ethnic minorities as well as use a map to locate environmental injustice. Grade Level. Essential Questions. What is environmental justice? How is pollution related to inequality? How can maps and graphs help us see where injustice exists?

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    What two kinds of information does the map show? What do the yellow dots represent?


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    What do the different shades of blue represent? What do you notice about where the yellow dots are concentrated? Write a sentence or two summarizing what the map shows. Write a sentence or two explaining why the situation that the map shows exists.

    Environmental racism | Office for Equity and Diversity

    What is unfair about the situation the map shows? Why might it be difficult for the people in the polluted areas to move somewhere less polluted? Read the definition of environmental justice. What would a more environmentally just situation look like on the map? At this point select from option 1 or 2 to conclude this lesson.

    Option 2: 6. Think about your community. What would a more environmentally just situation look like in your community? Write a paragraph. Make a bulleted list of the key points. Make a slide show with or without illustrations. External Links. EPA's definition of environmental justice. Principles of Environmental Justice.